‘Indisputable’ Proof Of A New Four-Quark Particle


Using the most powerful particle collider in the world, a research group at CERN has forged a particle made of four quarks, the European organization announced yesterday.

Most particles of matter in the universe today consist of two or three quarks. Over the past decade, however, particle-accelerator projects all over the world have gathered some evidence that a few different kinds of four-quark particles might exist. Physicists give such particles names starting with the letter Z. “These Z particles, you can think of them as a new type of matter,” Eric Swanson, a University of Pittsburgh particle physicist who wasn’t involved in the CERN research, tells Popular Science.

The Z particles the CERN group found go by the name Z(4330). They’re extremely short-lived and exist only in extremely high-energy environments. Physicists think they would have been abundant in the universe a microsecond after the Big Bang, after which they would have fallen apart.

Cosmic rays could make Z(4330) particles, but powerful particle accelerators—like CERN’s enormous Large Hadron Collider in Geneva, Switzerland—are some of the only other places on Earth where they’re made. “It’s just an incredibly rare process, so where they’re really being created is in the LHC in Geneva,” Swanson says. The so-called “Large Hadron Collider beauty collaboration” recreated Z(4330) particles by smashing together protons, which are each made of three quarks.

The new CERN data are strong, with a statistical significance of 13.9 sigma. This value is far, far beyond five sigma: the level of statistical significance physicists around the world agree as the cutoff to say discoveries are true. So, the new data help confirm that Z(4330) particles really exist.

CERN’s work resolves a once-heated debate. In 2008, the Belle Collaboration announced it saw the world’s first evidence of Z(4330) particles, in data from Japan’s KEK particle accelerator. Then another group, called BaBar, ran its own experiments in the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in California. BaBar said their results could be explained by something else—something that didn’t involve exotic, four-quark particles.

At a conference, Swanson nabbed Belle and BaBar scientists and asked them to explain their discrepancies. “Then I watched while they had a fight—I mean, an exchange; it was pleasant—about their relative interpretations. I have to admit I left that meeting confused,” he says. “So LHCb has come along and broken the tie.”

Not all Z particles that groups have discovered are as well-proven—with data from independent groups—as Z(4330) particles. One Z particle that’s been well documented is the Zc(3900) particle, which two labs independently announced they’d found last year.

You can read CERN’s paper about its new findings on the pre-print physics study server arXiv.



  1. Jene Wertz says:

    Love these! Are any for sale?

  2. Michelle says:

    Breathtaking! Love ❤ So very beautiful!!

  3. Anonymous says:

    in Michigan goes across the sky horizontally not vertically.

  4. Andrea says:

    Amazing photos.

  5. Anonymous says:

    I love how your click image is form #cosmos on Fox and you didn’t even bother to hide the watermark you used to make it look like the probe took the photos from IN the Jupiter atmosphere.

    • Cleo Cat says:

      yep, thought the same thing. pretty obvious, but still the article did surprisingly have some interesting details.

  6. Mark Bracken says:


  7. Marilyn Kinsella says:

    Learn something new everyday. Never heard of these – fascinating, beautiful, inspiring and downright awesome.

  8. Halina Biernacki says:

    Yes, these are stunning pic’s …. however, due to the development “doctoring” technology … how much of this is real?

  9. Lill ashakara says:

    Amazing, beautiful. Thank you, it made my day.

  10. Anonymous says:

    Thanks Miles Hebert for such amazing photos and making my day just a little more enriched. I have not seen these mice before, learn something new every day! Thanks, Miles!

  11. Angie says:

    Hi I have seen a photo of a field mouse sleeping in a purple tulip b,4 on FB. So cute I love these photos of these little miceys. It must be a lovely experience for you to see nature at its finest. And to capture such an event. With your eyes through your camera. Envy. From Angie ☺

  12. scott says:

    Beautiful. Who painted them?

  13. Wanda says:

    Churning storms make it look like the tie dye planet

  14. Anonymous says:

    and were not united with universe hahaha

  15. Anonymous says:

    That’s some beautiful fake bullshit right there.

  16. Lyn Hoffmann says:

    Yhese are NOT fake – we see clouds just like these in Australia – just because some people haven’t aactually seen them, does not mean they are fake, becaue they are NOT!

best of posts sosyogundem